TIMBER FRAME HOME CONSTRUCTION
“ Timber frame home basic package” – timber frame
The timber home erection begins with timber frames manufactured in the factory and assembled on the building site. “The timber frame home basic package” includes:
- external walls (glue-laminated beams) internal walls (glue-laminated beams or frames);
- floor, mezzanine floor, balcony and terraces constructions;
- roof frames (rafters, trusses, lathing);
- bolts, angles, threaded rods etc.;
- Technical Design for Assembly & Manufacturing;
Timber home erection in comparison with stone, brick or concrete houses is faster, more efficient and environment-friendly. The build time of manufacturing and assembly of timber frame basic package is 3-4 months at an average:
- 1.month- drawing up manufacturing & assembly design. Upon receipt of simplified architectural sketches from the client and calculation of basic package costs, Timbero shall conclude a contract with the client on development of Technical Design for Manufacturing & Assembly.
- 1,5 months – manufacturing of the house. When the technical design is approved, the manufacturing of house starts in the factory. Timbero shall conclude a contract with the client on manufacture, delivery and assembly of “the timber frame basic package”.
- 2.weeks – delivery of the house to the client and preparation of the timber frame home basic package for assembly and other construction works.
- 2.weeks – assembly of “the timber home basic package”.
This total manufacture-assembly build time is taken as pattern for ~200m2 timber house.
If the house is smaller, the total built time will be shorter and vice versa.
At the moment when the client has decided to start construction of his house, an issue arises about the required documentation. Let us be frank – time and accuaracy are needed for preparation of the necessary documentation therefore let us think ahead.
The building construction project will be required in order to start erection of the house. If you come to us without a developed building project, we will suggest an architect for you to apply for development of a qualitative building construction project.
In order to give you insight in the required documentation, we have prepared a short description of the process. However, it should be taken into consideration that the binding regulations for approval of the building may differ in each local government therefore we advise to contact the building authority of the particular local government and clarify all details.
Main phases of build programme:
- Master plan – covers the access roads, layout of piping systems and layout of buildings.
- Architectural drawings – floor plans, precise frontal, rear and side elevations, external cladding types and solutions, notches for height measurement, approximate technical system junctions, general technical specification of the building and a detailed explanation.
After the master plan and architectural drawings have been drawn up in accordance with the new Construction law, it is possible to obtain the construction permit in view the law sets out sumbitting of concept design. The local government shall issue the construction permit upon conditions to be met prior commencement of construction (development of other parts of the building design).
The architectural design is sufficient for Timbero to calculate the costs precisely for the house construction and start the erection of the house.
- Architectural design –should be complemented with the functional solutions of the house, floor plans showing the layout of rooms, area, position of bearing walls and partitions at each level of the house, layout of doors as well as the preferable assembly sites for various equipment, window and door specifications, colour palette for the house, finishing materials (floors, ceiling, terraces).
- Building construcrion design - foundation plan and project, constructive planning and cuts, junctions, specifications of the applied materials.
- Engineering solutions which are mandatory:
- Water supply and external and internal sewage network.
- Design of power supply external grid from the power station to the building. It is desirable to draw up the internal electric power project for the building.
- Heating system – the type of heating system should be specified. In case gas heating is planned to install, the external connection network project is required.
- Engineering solutions which are not mandatory :*
- Low intensity current (fire-fighting, security alarm system, electronic communication network).
- Ventilation and air conditioning systems.
- Heating system – the internal heating system project for the house.
*These works can be performed by agreement with the builders without development of specific projects.
The erection of the house can be started in separate parts obtaining approvals for the parts of the 2.phase. For example, after approval of the complemented architectural and building construction designs from the building authority, the erection of the house can be commenced simultaneously working on design of other parts.
PREPARING THE BASE AND TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS
The foundation of the house is one of most important stages in its erection. The further construction process, its maintenance and sustainability depend on qualitative preparation of the foundation. The construction engineer will choose which type of foundation would be most suitable for the particular house and whether geological investigation should be performed. During the investigation he drills several bores in the sites where the house is planned to be erected and gives conclusion on the ground condition and tolerances.
Screw pile foundation
The screw pile foundation is a new, convenient and fast solution in construction. The screw piles are steel supports serving as a foot for structure. The screw piles are wound into the ground of several meters depth until a solid soil layer is reached. Slab foundation or crown foundation (in case of floor insulation) are laid on the screw piles.During the pile installation the heavy machinery is not used and as a result the vegetation is not affected and the landscape is not damaged. They have an extra benefit remaining stable in soil which contans clay, turf and water as well. Such foundation is able to serve more than 50 years in view it is corrosion-proof. The foundation meets all building requirements. This simple technology ensures that the foundation will be ready in a short period of time.
The pillar concrete foundation is comparatively simple solution and is applied in single storey construction as well as in places where band-shaped or slab foundation is not possible to create. Ferroconcrete and metal reinforcement are used in pillar foundations. The designer shall calculate the required bearing capacities and the pillar foundation design shall be drawn up. Further the floor joists are put on the pillar foundation and the floor is insulated. After that the house is being erected.
The band-shaped foundation is the foundation most often used in single storey constructions. One of the advantages of this type of foundation is simplified technology of the underground waterproofing. Monolith construction made of waterproof concrete is a safe barrier for groundwaters and moisture. The band-shaped foundation distributes the weight of the house evenly and protects the technical systems from the frost impact. It is essential that the foundation is stable and no deflections are allowed otherwise problems are caused to the house structure.
The slab foundation is often used in single storey constructions. One of the advantages of this foundation is simplified underground waterproofing technology. Monolith construction made of waterproof concrete is a safe barrier for groundwaters and moisture. The slab foundation carries the load of the house evenly and protects the technical systems from the frost impact.It is essential that the foundation is stable and no deflections are allowed otherwise problems are caused to the house structure.
The engineering systems are technical systems which are neceassary to meet the inmates’ needs and effective functioning of the building.
Wood burning stove has comparatively low operational costs, however a separate area is required to accommodate it. Choosing above heating system solution, one should take into account that regular burning of wood and maintenance of the wood stove will be required.
Pellet stove has a lower installation cost. Likewise, it is possible to make this system automated. The same as the wood burning stove, regular maintenace and refilling will be required for the pellet stove. Nowadays compact pellet inserts are available that match perfectly the home decor and are designed for tiny houses.
Gas stove is one of themost popular heatingsystem types in cities with gas grid connection. The gas stove is comparatevily easy to install. It has a small size and convenient to maintain. At the same time the gas prices are fluctuant and heating costs may increase.
Ground source heat pump is a solution requiring more investments than installation of other heating systems. This is a heating equipment which uses the solar energy accumulated in the environment around us - earth, waterbodies, water from boreholes and air. The heat is generated without the burning process, no ashes, smoke or toxic gases with harmful effects on the environment. Fuel is not required to be procured and transported thus the running costs are very low.
Air-to-water heat pump is comparatively new heating type utilizing basically the outdoor air which is transformed into energy generating heat. The heat pump is an equipment which applies the principle of cooling equipment operation for heat transfer but unlike the cooling equipment, the heat pump works in opposite direction. This process that is possibly hard to understand at first, can be explained with a simple example – a domestic refrigerator with inside cooled but its outside unit (black coil) heats up. After redirecting the tubes, the inside of the domestic refrigerator will be heated up and cooled outside. Taking into consideration that the heater is equipped with a compressor, it will keep your heating costs low. The speed of the compressor operation may be adjusted depending on the necessary heating capacity. The installatation of equipment does not require digging into the earth as in case of ground source heat pump and this equipment is possible to install in a couple of days. The fuel costs may be equal to wood and granule energy cost.
Heating radiators – this is the most popular form of heating system.
Heated floors – recommended in single storey houses although, for example, in Scandinavia it is common to insall them in all storeys of the house.
Combined heated floors and heating radiators – the first floor of the house may have underfloor heating whereas radiators may be located on the second floor. This is one of the most efficient types of heating systems.
Heated air – air-air heating system may be installed in small homes distributiong heat throughout the premises using air to carry it as well as pellet fireplace inserts can be placed to produce heat by routing the air flow through air ducts to each room of the house.
Centralized water supply
The water supply system installed in the house is connected to the urban water supply system.
Artesian well or artesian bore
This is an alternative way how to get clean water suitbale for use in household. Such water supply has several pros – practically inexhaustible water resources and long life of the well, the cleaner water, a stable source of water, the bore can ensure comparatively large water consumption.
Water supply well
The main advantage is its location in comparatively small depth that essentially reduces the installation costs. The water is drawn from the well with the help of pump to supply the household water system.
Centralized sewerage system
In this case the sewerage system shall be connected to the urban sewerage system.
Biological waste water treatement systems
Biological waste water treatment systems are recommended to use in places with dense population – cities. All household effluents go to the waste water treatment equipment and are treated biologically to such extent that only water remains to be disposed into waters or earth.
This solution would be chepater than the biological waste water treatment system. Using the septic ystem, the effluents are treated approximately 50-60 % that is not sufficient for discharging them immediately into the environment. Therefore a separate drainfield is required for this system that is not possible to build in most part of Latvia in view the depth of groundwater should be at least 2-2.5 m.
The needed number and layout of sockets and switches are planned together with architect and accordingly the design for internal power system is drawn up.
LOW INTENSITY CURRENT
The low intensity current network depends on the client’s choosing and is planned together with architect.
- Phone, internet, television
A proper choice of insulator and qualitative insulation process is an essential phase for calculation of the capacity required for heating. These insulators are used for insulation of roof, ceiling, wall and floor constructions and filling of joints to ensure possibly less heat loss.
The basis of the rockwool insulation panel the narural stone basalt, diabase, gabro, amfibolit and dolomit. The rockwool can be formed in plates and rolls of various density and thickness for building insulation. Soft plates are made of rockwool for insulation of light frame walls, partitions, attic and rooof constructions and floors. The rockwool materials may resist high temperature. The fibres do not melt at even 1000 °C temperature. The rockwool has excellent sound insulation features and is used in internal partitions exactly for accoustic insulation.
Organic cotton is a high-quality, breathable and thermal insulation building material used for insulation of walls, ceilings and floors of the house. The producēt which is ecollogically clean and harmless for health, is made of waste paper thus the paper of the natural wood fiber ensures the breathing and moisture regulation of the material – and this is a guarantee for excellent thermal insulation. The organic cotton can be easily laid on horizontal, vertical and sloping surfaces filling the gaps and ensuring perfect insulation. The organic cotton is blown under pressure and its density reaches 55-60kg/m3 thus excludes the possibility of its settling. The houses having organic insulation not have rodents and pests. The process of organic insulation is comparatively fast and efficient in view no material residue is reated, the client pays for the amount of actually used organic cotton.
Wood fiber insulation
This material is sourced from forestry thus choosing this insulation tyoe, the house will be made of uniform material which will preserve the good properties of a timber house – thermal regulation – keeping cool in summer and warmth in winter. This material has high thermal insulation an sounproofing features ensuring a healthy microclimate. The material is sustainable, resistant against settling and compression as well as it is a health friendly and anti-allergic material.
The roof protects the house structure from the environmental effects and plays a significant role in efficient utilization of thermal energy. However, the roof has a great importance not only in ensuring the sustainability of the house, but also it creates the visual image of the house.
This covering is made of natuaral material creating an ancient look to the house and will well fit in an environment with other historical buildings. Therefore it is particularly suitable to cover complicated roof constructions. Clay tiles may serve even up to 150 years, rthey do not cause additional noise in rainy weather and no condensation forms under it.
This roof cover installation will cost less than clay tile covering. The concrete tiles may serve up to 100 years.
The main diference between the clay and concrete tiles is as follows:
- clay tiles are made of natural materiala
- cost of concrete tiles is lower than clay tile price.
- life time is equal as well as all technical properties are equal.
Metal roofs are made of high resistant coated steel. The steel roofing panel is coated withzinc, base coat and polymerpaint applied in order to withstand intallation and ensure guarantee krāsu un polimērkrāsu, lai tā izturētu uzstādīšanu un nodrošinātu garantiju even up to 50 years. Metal roof is comparatively light and suitable for lighter frames. The benefit of metal roof is its fast assembly in view the metal panels are made individually for each roof and one panel can cover up to 9 m2 large area that essentially speeds up the installation process.
Asphalt shingle cover
The flexible asphalt tiles (shingles) are meant for slanted roofs starting with 12° slope. They have sustainable and resistant fiberglass base coated with polymer modified asphalt blend made of high quality asphalt and filling. The bottom surface of shingles is coated with adhesive polymer asphalt layer protected with easily removable silicone membrane. The shingles stick together in sunlight creating double hydro isolation layer which ensures roof to be sealed. Laying of asphalt shingles is pretty simple also in complex constructions. In compariosn with the metal roof covering, the asphalt shingles have to be cleaned more because usually the roof is overgrown with a layer of moss. The guarantee of asphalt shingle roof covering materials is up to 25 years.
Wood shingle roofs have been widely installed for timer homes up to 40-ties of the 20th century. Nowadays also this roof cover has not lost its topicality. Wood shakes and wood shindles create explicit ecological impression. The shingles are made of aspen-tree, pine-tree and fir-tree. Installation of wood shingles is not cpmplicated but would better be trusted to experienced craftsmen. Three layer wood shake (shingle) roof will serve even up to 30 years without extra treatment (impregnation).
Sod roof cover
Sod roof cover suits both to buildings with completely horizontal and sloping (up to 45 degrees) roofs. The homeland of sod roofs is Scandinavia (Swedene and Norway) . In Latvia these roofs have not enjoyed great popularity but nothwistanding Latvijā šie jumti nav iekarojuši lielu popularitāti, bet irrespective of that, the clients more often consider the idea about sod roofs. The main task for other roof cover - to remove moisture but the sod roofs is the other way round – moisture is required in order to feed the soil and plants.
WINDOWS AND DOORS
Properly selected windows and doors may improve the visual image of the house and protect its inmates. Your choice and the design of the house will determine the windows shape and way of opening.
These windows are frost-proof and heat-proof, they have an excellent accoustic insulation, look good, made of ecological material, they are easy to treat and install.
The benefit of PVC windows is that they are fully hermetically sealed thus keeping the home warm and ensuring sound isolation, simple way of cleaning, repair without dismantling. As regards design, the technology allows to manufacture these windows almost identical to natural wood windows. The windows range is very vast and we, together with the client, will choose the most suitable solution.
Classic external timber doors may be 68 mm, 78 mm and 90 mm thick manufactured in conformity to Western standards. The classic external doors are made of pine-tree, oak or other wood, with glass or wood filling inbetween making the doors excellent and ensuring security. The external timber doors are equiped with high-security multi-point locks convenient for use. The glass elements in the doors are made of glass units which determine the heat preservation and sound insulation.
Internal doors are one of the most essential interior elements and serve as sound insulation in the living rooms. The interior timber doors create a cosy and natural atmosphere, besides the doors may be adjusted to any interior. The interior timber doors treated with a proper varnish, are easily to clean and retain their visually appealing properties as long as possible.
The selection of finish materials for inner wall, ceiling will depend on the client’s individual preference and the chosen design solution.
For inside finish usually utilizes the pine-tree, fir-trre and aspen panels. We will custimize the sizes of boards and profiles. The panels are possible to treat with eco stains, oils or apply various paints.
Plaster board or gypsum board is suitable for finishing the interior premises. These wall panels are comparatively easy to be mounted therefore the work will be performed in a shorter period of time. The material is available in various sizes and can be applied in premises with increased moisture and temperature depending on the type and specification. It is suitable if you wish to paint the walls or paste wallpaper.
Baths-sauna cladding board
The walls and sweating shelves are made of aspen or alder cladding boards. The premise is extra insulated with 30mm rockwool covered with foil thus ensuring less heat loss and protecting other structures from heat and moisture effects.
The wood creates the sense of natural coziness, besides it has a range of positive features like a natural material, the wood is ecological, warm material with good insulating properties. We recommned to choose oak or ash-tree boards for floors with high load capacity. After the flooring material is chosen, the floor should be definitely covered with coating – varnish or oil. The simpliest solution is pine board which will look sufficiently good in the house and create an excellent sense of coziness.
Similarly as other ceramic articles (dishes, washbasins etc) they are made of white or red clay adding quartz sand an other natural materials.
Stone mass tiles
They are made of clay adding caolin and crushed stone powder and colour creating minerals. During the manufacture the stone mass is extruded – water is forced out of it. As a result of extrusion the tile acquires a dense structure ensuring a high surface resistance against shock, wear, temperature changes and impact of precipitation. .
The main types of mosaic tiles are glass, ceramic and stone — functionally and aesthetically different finishing materials. Oblique, curved and fractured surfaces are possible to cover with mosaic creating rounded shapes. Glass and ceramic mosaic tiles are lighter therefore more suitable for finish of walls, niches, columns or other parts of premises, but stone mosaic – for decorating floors.
Pine tree terrace boards are classic materials used for terraces. The material is impregnated ensuring sustainable life span. In addition we recommend to apply oil to terrace boards using special oils meant for terraces.
Larch terrace boards are more resistant and durable in comparison with the pine and fir-tree terrace boards. Larch is hardwood with higher fiber density than a common tree. Like the pine terrace boards, the larch terrace boards also require treatment thus increasing the terrace life span.
The staricases are usually made of ash-tree, oak or pine. There are various types of staircases and the choice depends on home interior solutions and client’s expectations. Together we will find the most suitable solution for each particular project.
Handrails for balconies and terraces
One of the most popular solutions for a timer home is wood handrails. The selection of handrail solutions is tightly linked with the house exterior design of the house. The metal railing can also be used creating a perferct contrast to the house exterior, as well as glass railing conferring lightness, elegance and volatility to the house. Everuthing depends on the soultions provided by the architect and the client’s desire.
Sometimes the clients wish to fit the windows and doors of the timber house with shutters. This solution is most often chosen in cases if the house is located in an uninhabited place. The shutters serve both as an additional security and protection of the house from outdoor climatic conditions, snow and wind in winter, and they do not allow the house to be heated up in summer due to solar effects.
The majority of house designs contains fireplaces and the house heating system. The flue pipe is an essential element both in technical terms, the house decor and aesthetics. We recommend ceramic chimneys for home heating which are fire proof, fast and efficient to install and sustainable. The metal flue pipe can be used for the fireplace and sauna as well. The installation of metal flue pipe is faster and cheaper in comparison with the ceramic chimneys.